The management of the affairs of the public by central, state or local governments or statutory bodies is called administration. For example- the administration of post offices, the administration of the supply of electricity by the State Electricity Board, the management of broadcasting by B.B.C. (British Broadcasting Corporation) etc.
Five important definitions of public administration:
(i) Prof. L.D. White observes, “Public Administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfilment or enforcement of public policy.
(ii) Gladden gives a brief definition of public administration when he says that it is concerned with the administration of the government.
(iii) Harvey Walker observes, “The work which the government does to give effect to a law is called administration”.
(iv) Waldo defines public administration, as “the art and science of management as applied to the affairs of state”.
(v) Prof. Woodraw Wilson defines public administration as “detailed and systematic execution of public law, every particular application of general law is an act of administration”.
One of the most pioneering text of Political Science “The Prince” was written by the Florentine Statesman and writer Niccolo Machiavelli stands among the most original and lasting achievements of Italian Renaissance thought. As a young Florentine ambessador to the courts of France and the Italian principalities, Machiavelli was able to observe the lives of people strongly united under one powerful ruler. His fascination with the political rarity and his intense desire to see the Madici family assumed a similar role in Italy provided the foundation for his primer for princes.
In this masterpiece, Machiavelli speaks of some qualities of a good ruler. In this regard,it seems that Machiavelli is not much concerned with morality or religious values. He speaks of three ends which every ruler should aim at. They are to gain power, to retain power and to extend power. Besides these, he emphasizes on the following qualities that a ruler should possess:
* A ruler should know the art of deception.
* A ruler should not be religious.
* A ruler should look virtuous but he should not be virtuous at all.
So, according to Machiavelli, the ends are important, not the means. The ruler should choose only those means which would fulfill his political ends. Moreover, Machiavelli’s political theory is scientific and is based on his own experience of affairs.
An abrupt noise had broken my sleep. I got up from my bed at a leap and tried to infer the source from where it had occured. I inquired every nook and corner of my room but I could hardly find out anything.
It was a bright and hot sunny noon when I was just going through a magazine drowsingly at a chair in a corner of my varandah before I came into my room to have a cool sleep. But my plan went in vain. I came out of my room rushingly but found nothing. In the meantime, I had heard some unusual parlences in the street that went in front of my hovel. I went out in search of the source from where the utterances were coming. I was perplexed when I found a crowd encircling a corpse of an unknown boy. Out of my curiosity, I entered the crowd and asked someone in the crowd what had happened to the boy. A horrible reply came in a second from the other side. He had been shot down by two biker boys.
But what the reason was! The reason remained unrevealed…….